Agnes Scott College

Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova

1845 - 1919

Studied mathematics on her own in Russia. In 1872 went to Zurich to study at the Polytechnic Institute, receiving her baccalaureate in 1876, and her doctoral degree in 1878 from Bern University (despite a Russian decree in 1873 that all Russian women studying in Zurich had to return to Russia by the end of 1873.) Returned to Russia but was prevented from obtaining a teaching position. Finally accepted a post as a teacher in the lower classes of a women's academy. Published over 70 articles on the philosophy and practice of teaching mathematics. Respected as one of the foremost pedagogues in Russia.


  1. Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova," in Women of Mathematics: A Biobibliographic Sourcebook, Grinstein and Campbell, Editors, Greenwood Press, 1987, 129-134.
  2. Koblitz, Ann Hibner. "Elizaveta Fedorovna Litvinova (1845-1919)–Russian Mathematician and Pedagogue," AWM Newsletter, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1984), 13-17. [Reprinted in Complexities: Women in Mathematics, Bettye Anne Case and Anne Leggett, Editors, Princeton University Press (2005), 54-59.]